The story of the three-wheeled vehicles as such dates back at the time of Leonardo da Vinci who in 1478 had already the idea, then there were the first experiments in France in 1796 with steam vehicles, then Karl Benz in 1885 and John Knight in 1896 in England to get to this day just in the UK where there has always been the "culture" of the three-wheeled vehicle with Reliant especially while in Italy the three-wheeled vehicle has always been the most representative of the Ape Piaggio.
Both to improve stability and to have both the dynamics of a motorcycle were then designed the first vehicles with variable inclination that can be controlled manually, hydraulically and electronically through systems of various kinds; the first experiments date back to 1945/1950 for the work of Ernst Neumann up to the present day allowing me to remember a name that today produces both control systems that the model TTW or Chris Van den Brink who along with Harry Kroonen designed in 1997 and which today is produced by Brink dynamics in the Netherlands.
The systems developed for this type of vehicle for the tilt control in the curve and for the safety of passengers are varied.
The objective of these systems is that, through the measurement of the cornering speed, the lateral acceleration and steering angle, to establish a suitable inclination angle to balance the vehicle during cornering.
A series of sensors transmit their input to a computer which in turn sends signals to hydraulic actuators which can act on the suspension or on another type of system rolling.
The basic technology of DVC (Dynamic Vehicle Control) of Brink Dynamics, for example, includes a hydraulic pump connected to the motor that keeps the system under pressure through a surge tank at a pressure of about 120 bar; a valve installed on the steering system measuring the torque that is created between the steering wheel and the front wheels. This determines, through the operation of two hydraulic cylinders installed between the rear fixing of the vehicle and the movable front of the passenger, the inclination of the vehicle; a speed sensor installed on the front wheel will determine, through a valve, the detachment of the tilting system at speeds below 10 km / h. In case of failure of the hydraulic system, detected by the security systems present on the vehicle, which will put into action the two springs in place of the hydraulic cylinders keep the vehicle in a vertical position, this happens also in the case of parking. An electronic control system, realized through the reading of parameters such as the height of the center of gravity, the vehicle speed, the time of steering and geometry of the front wheels can act on the hydraulic system by applying a maximum torque of 500Nm value based on the dimensions of the vehicle and by various safety factors. In the reports page of this site you can find more information about the DVC.